看国外 | 提升母猪哺育能力,你持积极还是消极态度?

看国外 2019-09-20 10:32:11

How many piglets can be weaned per litter? Much of that depends on genetics and management techniques used. A recent Danish survey clearly demonstrates the nursing capacity potential of sows, writes Danish pig housing and welfare expert Vivi Aarestrup Moustsen.

每窝猪有多少头断奶仔猪?这很大程度上取决于所用的遗传学和管理技术。丹麦养猪业和福利专家Vivi Aarestrup Moustsen写道,最近丹麦一项调查清楚地显示了母猪的哺育能力。

Is there a quick and easy solution to handle large litters? Probably not, because like in most matters, success requires engagement, determination and willingness to see opportunities and half full glasses, to continue to work to improve the welfare and the production. That, instead of limitations and half empty glasses.

有没有一种简单快捷的方法来哺育大窝仔猪?可能没有,因为就像大多数事情一样,想取得成功需要投入、决心和看到机会的意愿,并且看到改善福利和生产的一半成功几率。而不是只看到各种限制和一半失败几率。

Many herds have similar numbers born alive per litter, but they don’t necessarily wean the same number per litter – or per weaning. At the Danish SEGES Pig Research Centre, we have counted and scored glands and teats of more than 400 Danish crossbred sows from 10 different herds. More than 50% of the sows had at least 14 functional teats and 10% had at least 16 functional teats. The number of ‘born alive’ averaged 16.9 piglets per litter in 2017, and number of ‘weaned/litter’ averaged 14.6. That figure, however, includes piglets weaned by nurse sows.

许多猪群每一窝的活产仔数相当,但每一窝或每一批的断奶仔猪数量却不一定相同。在丹麦塞格斯猪研究中心(Danish SEGES Pig Research Centre),我们对来自10个不同猪群的400多头丹麦杂交母猪的腺体和乳头进行了统计和打分。超过50%的母猪至少有14个功能性乳头,10%的母猪至少有16个功能性乳头。2017年,每窝的活产仔数平均为16.9头,每窝断奶仔猪数平均为14.6头。然而,这个数目还包括代乳母猪哺育的断奶仔猪。

图片1.jpg

A Danish sow nursing a large litter. This sow was not part of the survey described in this article. Photo: Henk Riswick

一头丹麦母猪正在哺育一窝仔猪。这只母猪与本文描述的调查无关。图:Henk Riswick

It is therefore essential to point out the difference between the total amount of piglets weaned per litter and the amount of piglets she has nursed herself. The first group is the number of piglets weaned per litter, the 2nd is called the number of piglets per weaning.

因此,有必要指出每窝断奶仔猪的总数与母猪自身哺育的仔猪总数之间存在差异。第一组是每窝断奶仔猪数,第二组是每批断奶仔猪数。

When the sows themselves nurse more of their own piglets, fewer piglets need to be moved to nurse sows, so there will be less mixing of piglets.

母猪自身可以哺育的仔猪越多,需要移交代乳母猪的仔猪就越少,这样就可以减少仔猪混群。

Herds with high numbers weaned

断奶仔猪数量多的猪群

Recently, we asked for herds with a high numbers weaned to contact us. We received data from 8 herds which had average numbers of sows between 443 to 1,358 over the last 52 weeks.

近期,我们让有大量断奶仔猪的猪场与我们联系。我们收到了8个猪群的数据,这些猪群在过去52周里,母猪的平均数量在443头到1358头之间。

Across the herds, the sows on average gave birth to 17-19 piglets born alive per litter, weaned 15-17 per litter, and reached an average of 12.6-14.4 per weaning. All 8 herds had a high productivity, and yet they also differed.

在这些猪群中,平均每头母猪的窝产活仔数为17-19头,断奶仔猪15-17头,平均下来每批断奶12.6-14.4头仔猪。所有8个猪群都有很高的生产力,但也各不相同。

In one herd, sows reached an average of 16.5 piglets weaned per litter and reached an average of 14.4 piglets per weaning. In total, 20% of the sows there weaned 16 or more piglets per weaning and another 29% weaned 15 piglets per weaning. An average of 20% of the sows in every weekly batch over 52 weeks had weaned 16 or more piglets. Figure 1 illustrates for 52 weeks the proportion of sows weaning 16 or more, 15, 14 or 13 or fewer piglets per weaning for the 8 Danish herds.

有一个猪群中,母猪平均每胎有16.5头断奶仔猪,每批14.4头断奶仔猪。其中,20%的母猪每批断奶16头以上,29%的母猪每批断奶15头。52周里每批母猪中,平均有20%的母猪断奶16头或以上。图1显示了在52周内,8个丹麦牧群,每头母猪哺育16头或以上、15头、14头或13头或以下断奶仔猪的比例。

Figure 1- Proportion of sows weaning 16 or more, 15, 14 or 13 or less piglets per weaning for 8 Danish herds.

图1-52周内,8个丹麦牧群,每头母猪哺育16头及以上、15头、14头或13头及以下断奶仔猪的比例

图片2.jpg

Potential to improve the nursing capacity

提高母猪哺育能力的可能性

The survey illustrates the potential to improve the nursing capacity of sows and thereby reduce movements and mixing of piglets. However, it takes management and good conditions for the sows. And most likely an adjustment period both for sows but nonetheless for caretakers to let sows do what they do well – look after their piglets.

这项调查显示了提高母猪哺育能力的可能性,从而减少仔猪的移动和混群。然而,这需要管理和并为母猪提供良好的条件。最有可能的是,对母猪来说,这都是一个调整期,但尽管如此,饲养员还是让母猪做它们擅长的事情——照顾仔猪。

We’ll continue our work to understand characteristics of sows nursing more piglets and management routines to ensure welfare and productivity go hand in hand.

我们将继续了解哺育多头仔猪的母猪的特点和管理程序,以确保福利和生产力携手并进。

原文链接:

https://www.pigprogress.net/Sows/Articles/2019/9/Weaning-piglets--is-the-glass-half-full-or-half-empty-473192E/

来源:Pig Progress

作者:Vivi Aarestrup Moustsen

(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)



    推荐阅读